summaryrefslogtreecommitdiffstats
path: root/2020/day-08/README.org
blob: 58bfbff4f092b43fd29efec4af453486a22690da (plain) (blame)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
#+SETUPFILE: ~/.emacs.d/org-templates/level-3.org
#+HTML_LINK_UP: ../../index.html#2020
#+OPTIONS: toc:1
#+EXPORT_FILE_NAME: index
#+TITLE: Day 08 - Handheld Halting

* Puzzle
- This puzzle is taken from: https://adventofcode.com/2020/day/8

Your flight to the major airline hub reaches cruising altitude without
incident. While you consider checking the in-flight menu for one of
those drinks that come with a little umbrella, you are interrupted by
the kid sitting next to you.

Their handheld game console won't turn on! They ask if you can take a
look.

You narrow the problem down to a strange infinite loop in the boot code
(your puzzle input) of the device. You should be able to fix it, but
first you need to be able to run the code in isolation.

The boot code is represented as a text file with one instruction per
line of text. Each instruction consists of an operation (acc, jmp, or
nop) and an argument (a signed number like +4 or -20).

- =acc= increases or decreases a single global value called the
  accumulator by the value given in the argument. For example, acc +7
  would increase the accumulator by 7. The accumulator starts at 0.
  After an acc instruction, the instruction immediately below it is
  executed next.
- =jmp= jumps to a new instruction relative to itself. The next
  instruction to execute is found using the argument as an offset from
  the jmp instruction; for example, jmp +2 would skip the next
  instruction, jmp +1 would continue to the instruction immediately
  below it, and jmp -20 would cause the instruction 20 lines above to be
  executed next.
- =nop= stands for No OPeration - it does nothing. The instruction
  immediately below it is executed next.

For example, consider the following program:
#+BEGIN_SRC
nop +0
acc +1
jmp +4
acc +3
jmp -3
acc -99
acc +1
jmp -4
acc +6
#+END_SRC

These instructions are visited in this order:
#+BEGIN_SRC
nop +0  | 1
acc +1  | 2, 8(!)
jmp +4  | 3
acc +3  | 6
jmp -3  | 7
acc -99 |
acc +1  | 4
jmp -4  | 5
acc +6  |
#+END_SRC

First, the nop +0 does nothing. Then, the accumulator is increased from
0 to 1 (acc +1) and jmp +4 sets the next instruction to the other acc +1
near the bottom. After it increases the accumulator from 1 to 2, jmp -4
executes, setting the next instruction to the only acc +3. It sets the
accumulator to 5, and jmp -3 causes the program to continue back at the
first acc +1.

This is an infinite loop: with this sequence of jumps, the program will
run forever. The moment the program tries to run any instruction a
second time, you know it will never terminate.

Immediately before the program would run an instruction a second time,
the value in the accumulator is 5.

Run your copy of the boot code. Immediately before any instruction is
executed a second time, what value is in the accumulator?
** Part 2
After some careful analysis, you believe that exactly one instruction is
corrupted.

Somewhere in the program, either a jmp is supposed to be a nop, or a nop
is supposed to be a jmp. (No acc instructions were harmed in the
corruption of this boot code.)

The program is supposed to terminate by attempting to execute an
instruction immediately after the last instruction in the file. By
changing exactly one jmp or nop, you can repair the boot code and make
it terminate correctly.

For example, consider the same program from above:
#+BEGIN_SRC
nop +0
acc +1
jmp +4
acc +3
jmp -3
acc -99
acc +1
jmp -4
acc +6
#+END_SRC

If you change the first instruction from nop +0 to jmp +0, it would
create a single-instruction infinite loop, never leaving that
instruction. If you change almost any of the jmp instructions, the
program will still eventually find another jmp instruction and loop
forever.

However, if you change the second-to-last instruction (from jmp -4 to
nop -4), the program terminates! The instructions are visited in this
order:
#+BEGIN_SRC
nop +0  | 1
acc +1  | 2
jmp +4  | 3
acc +3  |
jmp -3  |
acc -99 |
acc +1  | 4
nop -4  | 5
acc +6  | 6
#+END_SRC

After the last instruction (acc +6), the program terminates by
attempting to run the instruction below the last instruction in the
file. With this change, after the program terminates, the accumulator
contains the value 8 (acc +1, acc +1, acc +6).

Fix the program so that it terminates normally by changing exactly one
jmp (to nop) or nop (to jmp). What is the value of the accumulator after
the program terminates?
* Solution
=Instruction= is a grammar that parses the instruction & seperates
operation from argument.
#+BEGIN_SRC raku
# Instruction grammar seperates the operation & argument.
grammar Instruction {
    rule TOP { <operation> <argument> }
    token operation { acc|jmp|nop }
    token argument { .* }
}
#+END_SRC

=execute-from= takes an index & executes instructions from that point. It
returns the accumulator value. If the instruction has already been
executed then it will stop & avoid infinite loop.
#+BEGIN_SRC raku
sub execute-from (
    @instructions, Int $idx --> Int
) {
    my Int $acc = 0;

    return $acc unless @instructions[$idx];
    my $entry = @instructions[$idx];

    $repeated++ if $entry<executed>;
    return $acc if $entry<executed>;

    if Instruction.parse($entry<instruction>) -> $match {
        $entry<executed> = 1;
        given $match<operation> {
            when 'acc' {
                $acc += $match<argument>;
                $acc += execute-from(@instructions, $idx + 1);
            }
            when 'jmp' {
                $acc += execute-from(@instructions, $idx + $match<argument>);
            }
            when 'nop' {
                $acc += execute-from(@instructions, $idx + 1);
            }
        }
    }
    return $acc;
}

#+END_SRC

Each instruction is pushed to =@instructions= along with =executed= value
which indicates the number of time that instruction has been executed.
It'll be useful to avoid infinite loops.

=@instructions='s 0th index is set to a dummy instruction to make it
easier for =execute-from= to run the operations. The operations are
written around instruction file which is numbered from 1. It's easier to
add a dummy instruction than to make =execute-from= understand this.
#+BEGIN_SRC raku
sub MAIN (
    Int $part where * == 1|2 = 1 #= part to run (1 or 2)
) {
    # To match the numbers in instructions with array we just push an
    # element at 0th index.
    my @instructions = %(instruction => "", executed => 0),;

    for "input".IO.lines {
        push @instructions, %(
            instruction => $_.Str,
            executed => 0,
        );
    }

    my Int $acc;
    if $part == 1 {
        ...
    } elsif $part == 2 {
        ...
    }
    say "Part $part: ", $acc;
}
#+END_SRC

For part 1, we just call =execute-from= & print the =$acc= value.
#+BEGIN_SRC raku
$acc = execute-from(@instructions, 1) if $part == 1;
#+END_SRC
** Part 2
=$repeated= is a Int that keeps track of whether an instruction is
executed multiple times. It is a global variable.
#+BEGIN_SRC raku
my Int $repeated = 0;
#+END_SRC

=reset-executed= is a subroutine which will reset the =executed= field for
all instructions in =@instructions=.
#+BEGIN_SRC raku
sub reset-executed (
    @instructions is copy --> List
) {
    $_<executed> = 0 for @instructions;
    return @instructions;
}
#+END_SRC

For part 2, we loop over =@instructions=, change =jmp= operation to =nop= &
vice versa & run =execute-from= on changed =@instructions=. We check
=$repeated= value, if it indicates that nothing was repeated then we just
exit the loop & print =$acc=.

If not then we do the same thing again with next operation. This is done
after reverting the change we made & resetting =executed= value for all
instructions by calling =reset-executed=.
#+BEGIN_SRC raku
for @instructions.kv -> $idx, $entry {
    next if $idx == 0;
    $repeated = 0;
    if Instruction.parse($entry<instruction>) -> $match {
        @instructions[$idx]<instruction> = "nop $match<argument>"
        if $match<operation> eq "jmp";

        @instructions[$idx]<instruction> = "jmp $match<argument>"
        if $match<operation> eq "nop";

        $acc = execute-from(@instructions, 1);

        @instructions[$idx]<instruction> = "$match<operation> $match<argument>";
        @instructions = reset-executed(@instructions);

        last if $repeated == 0;
    }
}
#+END_SRC